In order to allow for the installation of scaffolding and floor, statuary, and artwork protection in conjunction with the Dome Restoration Project, the Rotunda of the Capitol will be closed from Monday, July 27 through Monday, September 7. While the Rotunda is unavailable for tours, an alternate tour route will be provided. The Capitol Visitor Center is open during the closure of the Rotunda and will offer special activities which do not require advance reservations. You can also download our new U.S. Capitol Rotunda app.

The Union Divides, 1861

Rarely has a presidential election brought such immediate consequences. Abraham Lincoln’s victory in 1860 triggered the secession of America’s Southern states even before the new president took office in March of 1861. On January 21, senators from Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi rose to bid their Senate colleagues farewell. The last to speak was Jefferson Davis of Mississippi. In an emotional address before a hushed Senate, Davis defended secession, insisting that Mississippians were only exercising their rights.

Within weeks, Fort Sumter fell to the Confederacy. Union soldiers, sent to protect Washington, camped out in the Senate Chamber while the Senate was adjourned. In a flash of anger, one soldier tried unsuccessfully to demolish the desk that had once been assigned to Davis. Americans of all regions recognized clearly that the nation stood at a dangerous crossroads.

History of Congress and the Capitol

The Senate 1851-1877

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Union soldiers in front of the...
Image Caption

Union soldiers in front of the unfinished new Senate wing of the Capitol, 1861

Union soldiers in front of the unfinished new Senate wing of the Capitol, 1861.

Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress

Union soldiers in front of the unfinished new Senate wing of the Capitol, 1861

Union soldiers in front of the unfinished new Senate wing of the Capitol, 1861.

Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress

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