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Creating a National Government - 1

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James Madison’s “Vices of the...
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James Madison’s “Vices of the Political System of the U.S.,” April 1787

While a delegate to the Confederation Congress, Madison pointed out the drawbacks of the government created under the Articles of Confederation, laid out the deficiencies of state governments and emphasized the need for a stronger federal government. Madison listed the problems, or vices, on the left and his observations on the right. The observations became part of the Virginia Plan.

Manuscript Division, Library of Congress