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United States v. Darby, Opinion of the Court, February 3, 1941

By the 1940s, views on child labor and federal power had changed. In U.S. v. Darby, the Supreme Court reversed its earlier opinion, deciding that Congress could regulate employment under the Commerce Clause and that the Fair Labor Standards Act was constitutional. The act continues to protect American workers, including youth, by setting standards for wages, hours, and working conditions.

Records of the Supreme Court of the United States, National Archives and Records Administration

United States v. Darby, Opinion of the Court, February 3, 1941

Is Child Labor Law Constitutional?

It took Congress and the Supreme Court decades to agree that federal regulation of child labor was constitutional. Senator Albert Beveridge of Indiana introduced the first federal child-labor bill in 1906. That bill failed, but Congress passed subsequent bills in 1916 and 1919, only to see them struck down by the Supreme Court as unconstitutional. Finally, in 1941, the Supreme Court reversed its earlier opinions, recognizing Congress’s power to regulate child labor as stipulated in the 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act.

Congress and the Supreme Court have interpreted the Constitution differently on some issues. Through opposing laws and legal decisions spanning a quarter century, the two branches eventually agreed that legislation regulating child labor is constitutional.