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Location of troops in the Philippine Islands, March 31, 1900, map by the War Department, Adjutant General’s Office, Military Information Division, 1900

Following a stunning victory in Manila Bay, the United States sent more than ten thousand Army troops to the Philippines. After the war, Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States, which took military control of the islands, suppressed a Filipino nationalist movement, and planned a new civilian government that would be temporarily under U.S. authority.

Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

Location of troops in the Philippine Islands, March 31, 1900, map by the War Department, Adjutant General’s Office, Military Information Division, 1900

Annexing the Philippines

In 1898 Congress declared war against Spain to support Cuba’s independence from Spanish rule. Hostilities quickly extended to other Spanish colonies, including the Philippines. At the end of the Spanish-American War, Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States for $20 million. Congress passed an Organic Act establishing a civilian government for the Philippine Islands in 1902, after U.S. troops suppressed a Filipino nationalist movement. Except when occupied by Japan during World War II, the Philippines remained under U.S. control until Congress recognized its independence in 1946.