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House of Representatives amendment to S. 222, An Act to provide a government for the Territory of Hawaii (Organic Act of 1900), April 5, 1900

With the Organic Act of 1900, Congress transferred Hawaii’s sovereignty to the United States, making it a U.S. territory, and defined its territorial government. Hawaii would have an appointed governor, a judiciary, and a bicameral legislature with popularly elected senators and representatives. Hawaiians were given U.S. citizenship and could elect one nonvoting delegate to the U.S. House of Representatives.

Records of the U.S. Senate, National Archives and Records Administration

House of Representatives amendment to S. 222, An Act to provide a government for the Territory of Hawaii (Organic Act of 1900), April 5, 1900

Hawaii’s First Delegate to Congress

The Hawaiian Islands were an independent kingdom until American businessmen, supported by a diplomat and U.S. Marines, overthrew Queen Liliuokalani in 1893. Forming a provisional government, the victors requested annexation to the United States. After initial annexation efforts failed, Congress passed the Newlands Resolution to annex Hawaii in 1898. Congress approved an Organic Act in 1900 to give Hawaii territorial status and provide a territorial government. The Organic Act permitted Hawaii one nonvoting delegate to the U.S. House of Representatives. Hawaii’s first delegate, Robert W. Wilcox, served from 1900 to 1903.

My great idea is to get this land system so all people––native, white, and every American citizen of this country—can have land, and not as it is now, in the hands of a few men.

Robert W. Wilcox, Hawaiian Investigation, 1902