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“Georgieanna Higgins, ‘Betsy Ross of the Capitol’” March 2, 1937

For at least 20 years, beginning during World War I, Georgieanna Higgins mended the U.S. flags that flew over the Senate wing of the Capitol.

Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress

“Georgieanna Higgins, ‘Betsy Ross of the Capitol’” March 2, 1937

Pledging Allegiance

Citizens of the United States, diverse in their backgrounds and beliefs, are united by adherence to principles of liberty and justice symbolized by the American flag. A pledge written for an 1892 Columbus Day celebration became the official affirmation of national loyalty in 1942 when Congress included it in flag legislation. In 1943 the Supreme Court upheld a citizen’s right to follow individual conscience and beliefs in choosing whether or not to recite this pledge.