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Certificate of Missouri Ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment, July 3, 1919

The U.S. Constitution requires three-fourths of the states to ratify an amendment. On June 4, 1919, Congress proposed an amendment enfranchising women. Within a month, Missouri became the eleventh state to ratify it. Tennessee’s ratification on August 18, 1920, met the requirement for 36 of the 48 states, and the Nineteenth Amendment was added to the Constitution.

Records of the U.S. House of Representatives, National Archives and Records Administration

Certificate of Missouri Ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment, July 3, 1919

Working for Woman Sufferage

From 1848 at a convention in Seneca Falls, New York, and continuing into the 20th century, several generations of woman suffragists worked tirelessly for the right to vote. Over time, they employed different strategies—some worked for a constitutional amendment, and others pursued suffrage state by state. Tactics included petitions, parades, public speaking, civil disobedience, imprisonment and hunger strikes. Women finally achieved suffrage in 1920 with ratification of the 19th Amendment guaranteeing them the right to vote.