America’s growing superpower role frequently strained relations between the House and the presidency. House support for increased military spending after World War II became a casualty of Vietnam as representatives grew skeptical of presidential military and foreign policies. The war further wrecked havoc on House support for President Johnson’s ambitious “Great Society” programs at home, while the Watergate scandals later inflamed House relations with the presidency.
Forty years of Democratic House majorities ended in 1995 as congressional elections became focused for a brief time on national issues. Slim Republican majorities, though, encouraged greater levels of party competition as many incumbents turned their efforts to cultivating support in their districts.
A More Open Chamber
Politics requires balancing both conviction and compromise. After World War II, House committees usually worked out legislative disagreements behind the scenes. More recently, committee consensus has been replaced by open debate on the House floor, often revealing sharp differences between the parties, highlighted in televised House proceedings and electronic roll call voting records. During the last quarter century, the chamber also has grown increasingly inclusive as voters elected more African-Americans, Latinos, and women.