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Congressional Directory, Seating Chart for 37th Congress, Third Session, United States Senate, 1863

Congressional Directory, Seating Chart for 37th Congress, Third Session, United States Senate, 1863

When the 37th Congress convened on July 4, 1861, many seats lay vacant as indicated by this Senate seating chart. By then, 11 southern states had seceded from the Union to form the Confederate States of America.

Publications of the U.S. Government, National Archives and Records Administration